Thursday, 28 September 2017

Black seafarers celebrated in Black History Month, Merseyside Maritime Museum

Tomorrow the UK's first large exhibition about Black and Minority Ethic (BAME) seafarers opens, at Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool.
Black Salt
is based on Dr Ray Costello's book of the same name.
It's a great start to Black History Month. Showing how much black people were part of Britain's commercial and naval life corrects the skew that formerly showed Jack Tar as a rollicking white chap whose main contact with BAME people was as lovers.

Even today the Royal Navy has only 5% BAME members (about 1,130), although BAME people are actually 14 per cent of the total population. But the RN is trying hard to recruit more. It has Diversity and Inclusion policies that mean no-one today would be the target of the racist bullying that some portrayed in this exhibition experienced.
I'm very proud to say I've been a little involved in advising curators, especially on black women seafarers sailing today. They include the UK's first black captain, Belinda Bennett of Wind Star cruises. See this blog:

As well as the exhibition there will be a series of talks. So far they are:
Britain's 18th century Black mariners: at home and abroad
A free talk by Dr Charles R Foy, Associate Professor Early American and Atlantic History at Eastern Illinois University.
Dr Foy's scholarship focuses on 18th century Black maritime culture. A former fellow at the National Maritime Museum and Mystic Seaport, he has published more than a dozen articles on Black mariners and is the creator of the Black Mariner Database, a dataset of more than 27,000 18th century Black Atlantic mariners. He is completing a book manuscript, 'Liberty’s Labyrinth: Freedom in the 18th Century Black Atlantic', that details the nature of freedom in the 18th century through an analysis of the lives of Black mariners.
Charles Foy,

OCT 7 Black seafarers at Trafalgar
Dr Ray Costello talks about the experiences of seafarers of African descent in Nelson’s Royal Navy at the battle of Trafalgar.Ray Costello.

OCT 28 Black Tudor and Stuart sailors
Dr Miranda Kaufmann, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, talks about chapters from her new book 'Black Tudors –The Untold Story'. This includes the stories of: Jaques Francis, the diver dispatched to salvage lost treasures from the Mary Rose; Diego the Circumnavaigator; and John Anthony the Mariner of Dover.
Pic: Miranda Kaufmann

Wednesday, 20 September 2017

All hands manfully to the ship's gushing pumps: Henry Tuke and Mrs Peggy

I've just found out that artist Henry S Tuke's (self-portrait, left) image of men manfully manning the ships' pump has been discussed as a maritime narrative that can be read homo-erotically. See yesterday's blog here about a woman, Peggy X doing it so staunchly.

Jongwoo Jeremy Kim devotes several pages to Tuke's 'All hands to the pumps!' in Painted Men in Britain, 1868-1918: Royal Academicians and Masculinities, Ashgate Publishing, 2012.

'The sensuality in this brotherhood of seamen 'is suggested in the action of pumping as well as the water gushing out from the pipes' Kim writes on p103

Kim also discusses The run home (1902) from a homo-erotic point of view:'the Cornish fisher-lads are celebrated as heroes who restore the beauty of the male sex, and a homo-erotic gaze is encouraged as a an aesthetic virtue. Tuke's naturalism capturing "views of labour" must be understood in this context of love between men.' p107.

So what does it mean, symbolically, for Peggy (this short, non-beauteous female outsider) and for the limp-spirited sailors who she allegedly showed up by pumping so much better than them? Can she be read as inadvertently causing a crisis of masculinity and queering a proud, formerly all-male team's collective gendered identity?

Tuesday, 19 September 2017

A daughter's story of women on board in Rear-Admiral Edward Ellicott's life

This is an item from the blog of the National Museum of the Royal Navy:

The curator writes:
"I am a little bit obsessed with gender history, especially men and women in the past who crossed gender expectations and boundaries to do things that would shock their contemporaries. One of my favourite objects is Rear-Admiral Edward Ellicott’s biography.
"Even though it is written as though Ellicott is telling the stories, it was actually penned by his daughter after his death.
"I was reading through his tales of fascinating 43-year long career (1781-1846) as a Captain, and came across several stories of women on board ships: including manning the pump and loading the guns, giving birth on ship and being captured by the enemy.

"Women on Board Ship
Though in the 18th century only men could join the Navy, women were on the ships too!
"There would often be a handful of wives living on board, usually married to warrant officers such as the gunner or carpenter. Wives were never recorded on ships’ lists; we learn of them by chance in other accounts such as Ellicott’s biography.
"Wives spent most of their time washing and sewing, but they also played an active role in battle, tending to injured men, and carrying out the dangerous job of running between the decks and the powder stores, bringing cartridges to the guns.
"It was a hard life and women could be away from home for years. They received no pay, and shared their husband’s hammock and food.
"Their mission was not adventure, but to be dutiful wives. There are accounts of women giving birth on ships between the guns, even during battle.

"Captain Ellicott’s Ladies

Gunner's wife takes over his gun
"In Ellicott’s biography women showed that they could fight just as well as the men. One event described was when his ship HMS Hebe was in an engagement with the enemy:
“one of the men at the guns was struck dead on the spot, his wife took his place and by the side of her dead husband, continued for a length of time, during the rest of the battle to load and fire her husband’s gun, as regularly as the other gunners…
"she refused to give up her post, and pointing to her dead husband with the effect of a tragedy queen, said ‘he would have done his duty well, had he been spared, and tho’ you have lost him, you shall not lose a gunner by his death, till I am destined to follow his fate’, she unflinchingly continued her cannonade, and was unhurt, tho’ many were killed and wounded around her.”
Captain Ellicott was so impressed that he bought her a farm in Orkney and “several cows” and she sent him milk and cheese for the next five years as a thank you.

Peggy shows the way on the pump
"The author also describes when Ellicott’s ship HMS Explosion was caught in a storm, and a “remarkably short, thick set” woman on board named Peggy came to the rescue: “many of the men soon became disheartened, as in spite of their utmost endeavours the water increased in the hold.”
Peggy, perceiving how things were going, turned away a man from his post and “applied herself to the pump and for fourteen hours worked incessantly at it, up to her middle in water, in an intensely cold night in January.
She invited the men to further exertions by showing them what she could and did do, and to her determination and perseverance was to be owed the keeping the Vessel from sinking from an over quantity of water.”
"Captain Ellicott was so impressed that back in Portsmouth he declared “that he believed she was to be ascribed the credit of saving the ship, as none of the men half worked until she set them the example” and set about organising a medal for Peggy, and a pension for life.
Peggy was so overjoyed by this that “she danced about in the most extravagant manner, and to evince her gratitude for his reporting her conduct; for years after supplied him with garters of her own knitting.”"


I posted this response:

I love this. Thanks for sharing it.

The story of the daughter being the author of the only published tribute to a naval man's career is typical of women's connections with the Royal Navy. A number of daughters and wives wrote up the exploits of the distinguished naval men to whom they were connected. Often the women made themselves invisible in the process.
But you could say it was one way women quietly shaped naval historical records. They not only gave the admiral his breakfast and so kept him going. These non-seagoing 'associate members' of the Navy also subtly contributed to the historiography of this very masculine institution.
The stories of Peggy at the pump, and the wife of the Hebe gunner carrying on, are so interesting. Again they're typical of what might be called 'corporate wives doing their duty. Is there more on the mother giving birth at sea?
I've tried to look up Edward Ellicott's daughter's name but all I can found out is that she was his only child, born c 1822 probably.So she would have been at least in her late 20s when she wrote the memoir after his death in 1847,

Looking for more illumination
In reflecting about these stories this morning I'm thinking how very interesting it is that Miss Ellicott wrote 'as' the naval officer she would NEVER have been allowed to become. She was not just a female ghost writer for a man. She vicariously 'became' a rear-admiral, and gave herself a patriarchal voice. It was a kind of ventriloquism, crossing the gender divide - and it could be of interest to literary experts.

Checking out the Hebe history you can see this 16-gun ship served at times between Orkney and Sweden, protecting the convoys. This suggests that the gunner might have already been a locally-recruited Orcadian. So the gunner's wife might have been brought up and married in Orkney, before she settled on the farm Ellicott gave her. It might have helped the widow's entire extended family to prosper. It's likely that the action in which the woman took part was in November 1808 when the Hebe helped capture the Danish ships Erndte and Printz Carl.

Peggy's 14-hour contribution on the Explosion would seemingly have taken place some time between 1804-1807 (Ellicott's period of command). This painting by Tuke shows what, 70 years later, 'All hands to the pump' meant: team work, solidarity, and hard manual labour at any time, not just in a freezing January.

Tuesday, 12 September 2017

Russian would-be captain Svetlana challenge sexist labour laws in court this month

In the 1930s and WW2, Soviet Russia was globally famous for its pioneering women captains such as Anna Shchetinina and Valentina Orlikova. They were exemplars. Their success and the respect they received inspired women everywhere. (See pics below and

This month, 80 years on, Svetlana Medvedeva is struggling for the right to be captain. Her landmark legal campaign could mean women mariners get back the rights they won at a time when all hands were needed -- even women's.
Svetlana's case raises the issue of whether protective legislation is outmoded sexism. It highlights the persistent pattern that women are allowed opportunities to do 'men's work' when there is an under-supply of labour. They are permitted to fill gaps. And there are few gaps in the Russian maritime industry just now.
This is what Amnesty international, which backs Svetlana, said:
"31 August 2017. A trial that opens today and sees a 31-year-old female navigation officer sue a Russian shipping company who refused to employ her as a ship’s captain, represents a landmark challenge to Russia’s sexist and outdated labour regulations.
Svetlana Medvedeva graduated in 2005 as a navigation officer in Samara region. In 2012 she applied for a job as a ship’s captain by Samara River Passenger Enterprise, but the company’s initial consent to hire her was later retracted because of labour laws that restrict women from more than 400 professions.

The current list of professional occupations that are banned for women in Russia lists 456 occupations and 38 industries that are considered too “arduous,” “dangerous” or “harmful” to women’s health, in particular to their reproductive health.
The “prohibited” list was originally adopted in the USSR in 1974. It was confirmed in 2000 by Russian Government Regulation No. 162 which allowed for exemptions only if safe working conditions were established by the employer.
Svetlana Medvedeva challenged the rejection of her job application in court, seeking a judicial order to compel the company to establish safe working conditions and allow her to work in accordance with Regulation No. 162. However her claim was rejected.


In May 2013, she registered a complaint before the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) alleging that her rights had been violated.
The complaint claimed that she had been denied employment by the company because of her sex, on the basis of a blanket prohibition.
On 25 February 2016, the CEDAW Committee found in favour of Svetlana Medvedeva and urged the Russian authorities to grant her appropriate compensation and to facilitate access to jobs for which she is qualified.

In July 2017 Russia’s Supreme Court ruled that her case should be re-opened. The trial begins today in Samara’s District Court. (see pic)
Amnesty International calls on Russia to comply with the CEDAW recommendation to amend Regulation No. 162 and to remove all arbitrary restrictions on women’s employment."

Seafarers Union of Russia said in 2012:

"In 2005 Svetlana graduated from Samara River Transport College. She specialized in Inland waterway and coastal navigation course. According to her certificate, Svetlana could work as a steerer-motorist. But when the girl tried to apply for a job on board m/s “Om-338” it turned out that Svetlana couldn’t be permitted to get it under the above Regulation.

Thus the situation became absurd as girls are allowed to get trained for specific professions but not to actually work in them.
Svetlana decided to fight and was alone at the beginning. She wrote to the President’s press-office that her constitution rights were violated and the letter was resend to the Federal Labour and Employment Service (which monitors the situation in the employment and compliance to labour laws, and etc.).
There it was explained to Svetlana that she could get the job in question provided that working conditions would comply with safety standards. After that Svetlana got in touch with the representatives of “Memorial” anti-discrimination centre and was recommended to appeal to court and complain against the SRPE for unsafe working conditions. Yet the court decided in favor of the enterprise, and this made Svetlana to write to SUR.
“My dream is to start working as a steerer- motorist, and then to join the Marine Engineering Department of Volzhsk State Academy”,- explains Svetlana.

Tatiana Sukhanova (pictured above), a deep sea captain from the Far East, says that “nowadays there are a lot of cases of gender discrimination in the fleet. More often then not, girls face difficulties when seeking a job, and even during their cadet practice.
This case shows gender discrimination because Svetlana is a bright girl who can successfully cope with her tasks, and even better than some boys do.”
More on Tatiana's own struggle can be found at

Friday, 18 August 2017

Indian Navy all-women crew to sail boat

Prime Minister Narendra Modi with the six women officers of the Indian Navy who are set to circumnavigate the globe on the sailing vessel INSV Tarini in New Delhi Aug. 16, 2017. Also pictured is Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sunil Lanba. (IANS/PIB photo)

This is post straight from the source, though I have added bold face to some bits. Jo.

NEW DELHI — The Indian Navy Aug. 17 said it is committed to increasing the role of women in the force and, as part of that effort, has an all-women crew set to circumnavigate the globe next month.

The team will be world's first all-female military team to circumnavigate the globe and the first all-women team in Asia to undertake such a challenge.

At a press conference announcing the circumnavigation, which is called Navika Sagar Parikrama, Chief of Personnel, Vice Admiral A.K. Chawla said: "We are committed to enlarging the role of women in the Navy. We have opened up several avenues, women pilots are flying Naval aircraft, and it is not a noble gesture, they are capable..."

"We are moving in a gradual manner... there are many issues to address on sea, like accommodation, future progress, and induction as well. I hope over a period of time it will happen," he added.

The Indian Navy has not yet deployed women on warships.

Lieutenant Commander Vartika Joshi, who is the first woman to be a skipper on an Indian Navy vessel and who will lead the team, recalled the moment she learned the Navy was looking for female officers to volunteer for the Cape to Rio Race in 2014.

"I was sitting in front of the computer and wondering where life was taking me... I felt it was a dream come true," she said.

Along with Joshi, the team includes Lieutenant Commanders Pratibha Jamwal and P. Swathi, and Lieutenants S. Vijaya Devi, B. Aishwarya and Payal Gupta.

In early September, the team will sail a 55-foot-long Indian Navy sailing vessel – the INSV Tarini from Goa.

Circumnavigation means the boat will be in open waters the entire trip and cannot travel via straits or canals along its way. It has to cross the equator at least once and the total distance covered must be greater than 21,600 nautical miles, the circumference of earth.

The around eight-month journey will be covered in five legs with stop-overs at four ports – Fremantle, Australia; Lyttleton, New Zealand; Port Stanley, Falklands; and Cape Town, South Africa.

The ship was made indigenously at the Aquarius Shipyard Limited in Goa.

Ratnakar Dandekar, who made the ship, said it was made of wood covered in fiber glass, which will give it maximum strength for the challenging journey it is to undertake.

According to Commander (retired) Dilip Donde, the first Indian to circumnavigate the globe solo and the man who trained the team, said the crew will face the some of the roughest seas on their journey.

"The leg where they cross the Pacific Ocean is going to be the toughest. In the Indian Ocean, in monsoon, the highest waves are three-four meters, in the Pacific, on a day if the wave is below five meters high, it is considered a good day... In addition it is very cold," he said.

The Pacific Ocean leg of the journey is expected to take around eight days.

The team is, however, prepared for the grueling journey and has already sailed in the rough waters of the Indian Ocean during monsoon, as well as participated in the Cape to Rio 2017 sailing race.

Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Cruising and civil partnerships: OK now as Bermuda law changes

Transport operators - P&O Cruises, Cunard and possibly Princess Cruises - are now marketing to couples with pink pounds to spare.
This is quite an ironic twist from the 1950s-80s when gay, bi and trans male crew sailed as a way to join floating queer heavens and to live in out-and-proud communities despite the illegality.
There were 'queer weddings' on board then too - and queer divorce ceremonies. They took place below sea level in the rowdy crew bar and of course had no legal standing. Such occasions of carnivalesque misrule happened at a time when legalised same-sex marriages were unthinkable, a fantasy that could never be in reality. However same-sex couples who'd met on board sometimes stayed together for life,when their seafaring days ended.

Camp crew weddings in the mid-20th century were mock-playful, involving a lot of dragging up and drinking. To my knowledge no captain officiated, just a friend with his collar on back-to-front.
Putting on fancy dress, 'becoming' someone other, and having celebratory events was a very normal way of passing a long voyage, for people of every sexual orientation.

The article below shows how times have changed.


"P&O becomes first British cruise line to offer same-sex marriages at sea, by Soo Kim, travel writer
The Telegraph, 1 August 2017

"Marriages at sea on board P&O's seven Bermuda-registered ships, and all three of Cunard's ships, will be open to same sex couples CREDIT: AP

"P&O Cruises, part of the American-British cruise company Carnival Corporation, is the first cruise line in the UK to be able to conduct same sex weddings at sea....
"The first ceremony [will] be held in the Caribbean next January [2018.
"This P&O civil partnership ceremony will be] followed by Carnival’s Cunard cruise line, which will offer same sex marriages from November 2018.


"The new offering follows a landmark ruling earlier this year that legalised same sex marriages in Bermuda. [This is] where seven of P&O’s eight ships (apart from the Britannia, which is registered in Southampton), and all three of Cunard's ships are registered.
"The first same sex wedding at sea will take place on board P&O’s Azura ship, which is registered in Hamilton, Bermuda.
"Wedding packages for P&O cruise ships are available from £1,200... Packages for Cunard’s Queen Mary 2 are offered from around £2,570 and from £2,117 for weddings on board Queen Elizabeth and Queen Victoria, which earlier this year received a £34 million refurbishment.
"The ceremonies will be carried out by the ship’s captain... The marriage licenses will be issued by the government of Bermuda.


"Princess Cruises, which also operates under Carnival, is also reportedly planning to offer same sex marriages across its 13 ships registered in Bermuda, according to Cruise Critic, but has yet to reveal when.
"We are currently working on developing a range of services and amenities to meet the needs of same sex couple ceremonies and will release full information on these shortly," the company said in a statement.
“'This is very welcome news for us and I am delighted that we have become one of the first British cruise lines to take a booking for a same-sex wedding. We look forward to welcoming this couple and many other couples too,' Simon Palethorpe, senior vice president of Cunard, stated.
“'Weddings at sea are very romantic and getting married by the captain in the middle of the ocean is an unforgettable experience,' Paul Ludlow, senior vice president of P&O Cruises, said.


"It has been more than three years since Britain legalised same sex marriages in 2014, when gay couples from Brighton, Halifax and London tied the knot for the very first time on March 29 that year. They were closely followed by hundreds more couples in England. Later the same year Scotland followed suit by introducing new legislation."

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Gay men at sea in WW2 - and raunchy divas. A little of what you fancy does you good, especially in wartime

Stephen Bourne, Fighting Proud: the untold story of the gay men who served in two world wars, IB Tauris, London, 2017, £17.99.

Fighting Proud is the story of men in war. The few women who briefly appear in it are divas such as Bette Davis, who men emulated, or friends and supporters such as Elisabeth Welch, the mixed-race singer of Stormy Weather.

That means servicewomen with non-heterosexual identities, such as lesbian Wren Nancy Spain, are absent. That’s still a book in search of an author.

This new rich book devotes two chapters to queered men who were in sea-related work. They include musician George Melly (1926-2007) on aircraft carrier HMS Argus; and George Hayim (1920-2011), a millionaire idler slumming it among the 480 men on new cruiser HMS Cleopatra. After he left circa 1943 his (later) lover, Lt Cdr Anthony Heckstall-Smith (1904-1983) was also aboard.

Picture, left: George Melly as a young man, at his typewriter

Picture, right: Anthony Heckstall-Smith in later life, when he was an author.

There are disproportionately small references to men in the Merchant Navy, where MSM (men who have sex with men) proliferated.

My review here focuses on the Royal Navy in WW2, but the book shows the armed forces and home front queer contexts in both world wars.


Bringing the story forward to the 1982 Falklands Conflict the author introduces merchant seafarer John Webber, who explains why gay men were thought unsuited to ships, especially when battling on the waves.
Webber was on an (unnamed here) civilian ship transporting the Queen’s Own Highlanders to the South Atlantic. He disputed with senior armed forces officers on board: ‘Their argument was simply “you can’t have men playing with each other like this. What if you’re attacked and they’re busy taking care of each other’s desires”' (p.xix )
The same argument - ‘sexual desire would distract people from the duties’ - was used to oppose Royal Navy women being allowed to work at sea before 1990.
In fact, relationships, sexual preference and personal identity do not necessarily bear any relation to bravery, self-discipline and commitment to the greater good. This was proved, for example, by John Beardmore (1920-2004). He was a Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve sub-lieutenant who was in the appallingly challenging Russian convoys including PQ17 on corvette HMS Poppy. (Betty, his Women’s Auxiliary Air Force sister, unbeknown to him, plotted its course). He also took part in the North Africa, Sicily, and Normandy landings and was Mentioned in Dispatches and be-medalled (p70-71).

Picture: John Beardmore's HMS Poppy. Pictured in with his account of the ship at


Wars undoubtedly lead to different sexual behaviours. The reasons included:
• the idea ‘feel free to act now, because tomorrow we may be dead’
• tenderness towards colleagues bonded by adversity, a closeness that may extend to physical demonstrations
• experiment away from home and familial norms
• the simple seeking of sexual relief. John Beardmore explained the common practice of seamen mutually masturbating each other: it was said to be a way to avoid catching sexually transmitted diseases from female sex industry workers ashore (p71).

Picture: John Beardmore as court usher in Rumpole of the Bailey, 1979. Picture courtesy of


A key question must be what does being at sea – as opposed to in the army, RAF and at the Home Front – enable in the way of non-heterosexual expression and identity exploration?

The book doesn’t tackle this. But from my own research I believe three answers are paramount:

1.CLOSENESS. Long-term living in close quarters bonds people, creates stupendous camaraderie, and develops respect for human differences. Officers’ cook and Polari-speaking female impersonator Terri Gardener (1920-2000) tells apparently double stories of crews’ homophobia yet politeness, of subtle disrespect yet useful loyalty: ‘I was called horrendous things’ but also ‘I don’t ever remember running into real unpleasantness' (p77). A gay man had early advised him ‘the best way for me was to be downright outrageous.’ He did so by entertaining in drag, which made him popular. He was also so appreciated as a receptive partner that ‘I just couldn’t take any more of it’: possibly he was used rather instrumentally. Terri went to see a naval psychiatrist and as result never sailed again. He was under open arrest ‘for being homosexual’ not for committing a homosexual act, points out Bourne, crucially. Officials asked everyone on his ship if they had they had intercourse with Terri. His shipmates all kept schtum (pp77-78). This would partly have been to protect themselves too. But Terri was eventually given a dishonourable discharge. This is something that happened to many LGBTQ naval people in the post-war years and wrecked careers and lives.

2.CROSS-DRESSING. The tradition of dressing as women for entertainment, including theatre shows, was more common on ships on boringly long inactive voyages than it was in the army or air force. Naval signalman Dennis Prattley dragged up for concert parties in a troupe of three. He 'was' singer Ann Sheridan and his pals 'were' Rita Hayworth and Katharine Hepburn.

Picture: the real Ann Sheridan

'Sherry's' troupe was so successful that the members tried to leave the navy to pursue full- time theatrical careers. Although in peacetime navy psychiatrists were keen to get gay men removed (they were seen as weak links), in war Dennis and co had to stay on, ‘I did my bit for my country and was always in action one way or the other,’ he quipped. 'I think I made a lot of difference’ (p71-72).

3.EXCEPTIONALITY OF A SHIP. The vessel far away at sea becomes a heterotopic space where the othered may occur – and may be treated in a tolerant, othered manner, despite official prohibitions.

In other words, sex, love and friendship – in all their hues – naturally happen in cooped-up 24:7 floating workplaces. That’s why today the now gender-integrated Royal Navy has a no-touching rule, and why both Royal and Merchant Navies necessarily have strict policies about sexual bullying aboard, and gender-segregated spaces.


Such space-times of relative freedom were not just war-specific. A number of men who had same-sex sex at sea married but continued their old connections in some way. John Beardmore explained ‘I know of fellows who were oppo’s [counterparts] and who were having affairs at the time…[but who] went on to become godfathers to each other’s children’ (p71).

Terri Gardener. Continuing to idolise Greta Garbo, until 1971 Terri became part of a professional twosome of female impersonators: Chatt and Gardener. He and partner Barri Chatt appear in the musichall documentary A Little of What You Fancy (1968) (still available via Amazon films).
The title refers to the risque Victorian song made famous by Marie Lloyd, which female impersonators often sang:
'I always hold in having it, if you fancy it,
if you fancy it, that's understood.
And suppose it makes you fat?
I don't worry over that.
A little of what you fancy does you good.'

Pictures: A Little of What You Fancy, Marie Lloyd, and Greta Garbo

John Beardmore. After the war John Beardmore resumed his stage career and was in TV series as late as the 1980s, including playing patriarchal roles such as the judge in Softly, Softly: Task Force .

George Hayim.Later known as the Duchess of Cremorne, George in 1988 published a candid memoir: Thou shalt not uncover thy mother’s nakedness . It includes the camp lines: ‘I never wanted to join the Navy to kill anyone, or to sink the Bismarck. I just thought it would be a turn on: a bunch of hard men bubbling away together in a pot. Also, navy blue is my best colour and I love dressing-up.’
In fact, his ship was among the many vessels and planes that in 1941 did actually pursue and later sink the iconic German battleship - while he was seasick below. (No Stugeron tablets for the armed forces in that war; ‘proper men’ supposedly don’t throw up! )

Picture: George Hayim’s autobiography (still available second-hand).


Bourne’s valuable and easy-to-read book is not quite a collection of ‘untold’ stories, as in the sub-title. Rather it gathers under-told stories, and those not previously collected together to give a coherent collective account of GBTQI men in wars. That is, it is not an oral history, nor a collection of hitherto unpublished writings nor an examination of official documents dealing with homosexuality in the services. Those sorts of articles and detailed studies by other scholars will surely follow.
The footnotes and bibliography will help readers research further,
Fighting Proud makes a worthy counterpart to John Costello’s Love, Sex and War: Changing values 1939-45; to the US story told in Allan Bérubé’s Coming Out Under Fire; to the Canadian work by Paul Jackson, One of the Boys: Homosexuality in the Military During World War II; and to Yorick Smaal's Sex, Soldiers and the South Pacific, 1939-45: Queer Identities in Australia in the Second World War.

It is, in a sense, a sister to Emma Vickers’s academic study,Queen and Country: Same Sex desire in the British Armed Forces 1939-45. Fighting Proud's findings are complemented by the Merchant Navy post-war history I wrote with Paul Baker: Hello Sailor: The Hidden History of Homosexuality at Sea. and the recent book about queer life aboard a Falklands Conflict merchant vessel, the Norland: All in the Same Boat, by Warren FitzGerald.

Saturday, 8 July 2017

Japan's first warship captain takes control: Miho Otani

Women captains of warships - anywhere in the world - are still very very rare. Senior officers, yes. But making it to the top boss is a real feat.
Here's Commander Miho Otani, Japan’s first female warship captain. She's 45, has a 12-year-old daughter and faced family opposition at first.

“I feel that male and females are very much equal in terms of careers. I get the same salary. […]There are some duties I can’t assume, such as going on submarines, but other than that, there are not many jobs that I cannot do. I feel it’s equal” she announced very diplomatically.

In fact, Japan's navy has been slow in letting in women. And most countries' navies have been - in principle - allowing women on submarines for at least six years.


Sunday, 2 July 2017

Pirates of the Caribbean Disneyland: sex slave scene to be ditched

Artist's impression of the new ride scene. Image: Disney Imagineering

Who says protests about awful representations of women doesn't work? Walt Disney Imagineering is climbing down in its showing of sexual slavery as an entertainment.
Maybe that means customers' complaints hit corporation revenue, or just that moving with the times does happen, eventually.
At Paris's Disneyland the old banner at the 50-year old Mercado ride proclaiming "Auction, take a wench for a bride” is being changed on 24 July. It will become “Auction, Surrender yer loot.”
There will instead be an auction of valuables that were stolen from the townspeople.
And the bound, crying woman who was being sold off to pirates will soon be a pirate lady, bold and in charge.
In 2018 the other two Disneylands will rectify matters.
The old version. Photo Courtesy: mliu92/Flickr/CC BY-SA 2.0

Disney has moved, belatedly, with the times before.
In the 1990s the scene where pirates chase female victims was changed so around. women chase men and some hold food. I guess you could call that progress?

In reality women and men alike in ports sold women's sexual services to visiting seafarers. One of the most famous 'dealers' in the Caribbean was Rachel Pringle, a madam in Barbados. (See pic)
As for selling wenches as potential "wives", this is a euphemism, and a fantasy. Pirates were unlikely to want a bride, ie a permanent partner, because few women were allowed in busy ships. Also, supporting a marital home, in a place the man might never visit again, was obviously a poor use of money.

Thursday, 1 June 2017

Race and the Sea conference, Liverpool Sept 2017

(Black seafarers were part of the crew. Racial mixing and integration was normal, as this image by Maclise, The Death of Nelson, indicates.)

Race and the Sea is something maritime historians in the UK are giving attention to.

Liverpool's Centre for Port and Maritime History is making an important step towards making research visible by organising a conference on this theme on September 15, 2017 at Liverpool John Moores University, UK.

"Since ancient times peoples of different races have enjoyed a relationship with the sea. This has included trade, exploration and the pursuit of empire. We seek to better understand the relationship between race and the ocean." say the organisers.

Conference themes include Maritime History, Transport, Port-towns,Activities on-board ship, Conflict & reconciliation at sea, Maritime warfare, Maritime exploration & science, Maritime economies, Maritime law, Maritime art, Tourism & leisure at sea.

For more information go to:

Women in relation to race at sea can be found on this blog using the search terms 'race' and 'black.' For example, the UK's first black woman cruise ship captain was Belinda Bennett in 2016.

And the tragic loss at sea of Akhona Geveza (was she murdered to shut her up or was it suicide?) after her sexual harassment allegation can never be highlighted enough. (pictured below left)

Friday, 12 May 2017

Nursing in the Navy: Nora Miller: passenger ship nurse and QARNNS pioneer.

Nora Miller, later Lewis, (born 1940) (pictured above in Malta when she was a QARNNS) is one of the rare women who nursed in both UK navies, Merchant and Royal. She is part of a remarkable cluster of women who did an archetypal feminine job but at officer-level, and in a workforce where men dominated. Such women numbered hundreds not thousands.
Her memoir, Nurse in the Navy, was published in 2016. It is all too brief: just 136 pages. But two of its key elements are her experience on the prestigious liner/cruiseship Queen Elizabeth from 1966-68, and in the Royal Navy from 1970- 1981.

Looking after cruisers and crew: 1966-68
In commercial shipping women had nursed on passenger ships since before 1900. For the first few decades of the twentieth century they were often employed as stewardesses but expected to nurse when needed, on top of their regular work. When Nora Miller, a former head-girl, joined the iconic Queen Elizabeth in 1966 she joined a world where the two or three Sisters were a respected full-time part of the medical team. (See picture of QE team above: Nora is far right)
‘I settled into a pleasant routine of crossing the Atlantic in winter followed by a cruise, either to the Caribbean from New York or to the Mediterranean from Southampton.’ In summer her ships simply crossed between New York and Southampton.
‘After two years this wonderful adventure came to an end for me.’ Cunard replaced the ship with the QEII in 1968. Jobs were lost. ‘It was last in, first out’ and she went ‘drearily back to life ashore. In the long term it was a good thing as for me it was not a life with any real substance.’ She left ‘far more worldly wise then when I joined.’
Many seafarers eventually become tired of living out of a suitcase, but still addicted to travel. For Nora "I loved the idea of a regular change of job and realise that if I joined the Royal Navy they would do it for me with regular postings, some abroad.’ She became a Queen Alexandra’s Royal Naval Nursing Service Sister in 1970.
Navy and QARNNS: 1970-81
By contrast to nurses on passenger ships, women had nursed intermittently in Royal Navy hospital ships near combat situations since at least 1660. They became a separate professional force in 1884, which was in 1902 named Queen Alexandra’s Royal Naval Nursing Service.
They worked on hospital ships in the First and Second World War and in Korea. However QARNNS’ usual place was in naval hospitals ashore.
Many QARNNS longed to be based with the Navy overseas. Nora too had looked ‘forward to foreign postings and was dismayed to see the Navy withdraw from Hong Kong, Singapore and Mauritius the very year I joined.’
In fact, she was lucky. In 1971 she was posted to Malta, one of the few remaining overseas naval bases in this Cold War. She afterwards went to the US on an exchange scheme. Then in 1979 Nora had ‘another ground-breaking posting abroad’ at RAF hospital Wegberg near Düsseldorf where she taught obstetrics to Royal Navy student nurses. (See picture above, Nora is on right).

Changing times: 1970-90
Naval nurses were not allowed to serve at sea in this period (male sick berth assistants did that work). But in 1971 when she was allowed on board HMS Glamorgan for a family day Nora told an officer she met that ‘"It won’t be long before we women are at sea with you"… To my astonishment he replied angrily, "You can stop talking like that! It's very unlucky to have women at sea!"
In fact, it took another two decades before women in naval service were allowed to routinely serve at sea, just like males. Exceptionally, ‘in the 1970s [naval] nurses were quickly put on board ship if it was sailing off to evacuate British families from some danger zone, as happened several times’, she explained.
When she returned to Portsmouth in 1973 ‘Sexist attitudes in hospital were being challenged at last… One of the Ear Nose and Throat doctors… told me to fetch him a cup of coffee. "Get your own coffee," I replied. He looked startled. "But nurses are the handmaids of the doctors!" he said and was only half joking. "Not on my ward, they’re not!" I told him firmly. "And don't you go asking any of my staff to do it either.’

The two key changes that affected naval nursing were:
~ 1977. The decision to include women under the Naval Discipline Act, just as men were. Nora Miller told me ‘It changed everything.’ QARNNS became properly affiliated to the Royal Navy, although remaining a separate service. They wore a more naval uniform with gold braid on their sleeves. Nora found that when the QARNNS came back from their post-NDA course some male medical assistants were quite hostile because the women now had a more naval status. They got used to it.’
~ 1990. NDA was followed by the 1990 decision that women could serve at sea on naval ships. By that time Nora had left the QARNNS to be with her husband.
In both Merchant and Royal Navies, a few women were also serving as doctors from the 1960s.

After 1983 males were allowed to be QARNNS. Today mixed health-care teams serve on all ships. Men still predominate in the higher medical jobs.

~ Nursing in the Navy can be bought via
~ Naval nursing history is outlined in my forthcoming book Women and the Royal Navy (IB Tauris/NMRN).
~ Passenger ship nurses’ history is in my From Cabin “Boys” to Captain: 250 years of Women at Sea (History Press, 2016).

Saturday, 29 April 2017

Naval women made music

The Royal Navy Ladies Orchestra, 1892-c1914 is one of the lost stories of women's history in music and and in service life. It's possible to piece fragments of it together but really it requires a collective effort, if anyone would like to co-operate.

The Navy and Royal Marines had their own full-time professional musicians. But in addition, there seems to have been a separate, less integral musical initiative by pre-WW1 women: The Royal Navy Ladies Orchestra. They were probably women who were raising money for naval charities.

'Delightfully cerulean'

Generally they were well-received. The orchestra was applauded by one reviewer as ‘agreeable and diversified.’ By 1909 they were advertised as ‘Acknowledged to be the Finest Ladies' Band now before the Public. ‘ They belonged to the stately end of musical entertainment, not the bawdy cross-dressing music hall end. They didn’t wear a snappy version of a naval trousers but were ‘ladies in blue, who look delightfully cerulean’.

At piers and kursaals
The orchestra mainly played in the north, at end-of-pier events and charitable occasions. But it also appeared at august venues such as the Royal Albert Hall and Crystal Palace. In Europe after 1870 ladies orchestras proliferated, and were very popular, especially at kursaals, a stately equivalent of medical spas at watering places.
The RN Ladies Orchestra must have been up with the best because it played in Hamburg, Leipzig, and Dresden.
At the start of WW1 they were playing in Portsmouth and Worthing, perhaps as a way to boost recruitment and morale. On Worthing Pier that August 1914 they played every weekday and also gave 8.30pm promenade concerts to strollers on Monday, Wednesday and Saturday.

It appears that there were usually at least eight members. Twelve are in this 1914 picture. Some were instrumentalists, such as cellist Winifred Parsons in October 1909. Vocalists included sopranos Miss Winnie Lincoln and Miss Elsie Raynor.
Their director was Miss Florence Sidney Jones (see pic), who later began calling herself Mme Flo Sidney. Reviewers praised her as ‘painstaking and capable’. She was the sister of James Sidney Jones, composer of musical comedies. Her address was Bellcare House in Leeds (Not findable). She sang a song in c1883 that James had composed. (see sheet music)

Timeline for Florence Jones' musical evolution

1860 & 70s: Flo must have grown up steeped in music. Her military father, James Sidney Jones senior (c1837–1914), was a military bandmaster and conductor. One of her other brothers Guy Sidney Jones (1875–1959) was a musical director and composer too. The family moved many times as their father was sent to new military stations such as Colchester, Aldershot, York, and Dublin before settling at Bellcare House in Leeds. There Flo’s father was conductor of the Leeds Rifles, musical director at the Grand Theatre and conductor of the Spa Orchestra at Harrogate.
1882: Flo’s brother James Sidney Jones junior travelled as a conductor of touring musical shows, which must have made it easier for Flo to later consider an itinerant musical career too. One of his stars was Lucy Carr-Shaw (1853-1920) (see picture), George Bernard Shaw’s sister, who may have encouraged Flo to become an independent thinker and New Woman.

1883: James seems to have briefly taken responsibility for the orchestra initially.
1893: After his tour to Australia and when his West End career took off in 1893 it was Flo’s name that appeared everywhere in relation to the RN Ladies Orchestra, particularly in newspaper announcements of events, called ‘Provincial Theatricals’ in The Era.
By 1896 James Sidney Jones created The Geisha, ‘by far the biggest hit of that decade, its popularity outstripping everything else, even The Mikado, throughout Europe.’ The Gilbert& Sullivan-like show features naval officers and ‘the amorous goings-on when Lieutenant Reggie Fairfax and his fellow officers from HMS Turtle descend on 'The Tea-House of Ten Thousand Joys' in Japan, longing for a cup of tea and female company.’
It’s likely that Flo stayed with her wealthy brother James when in London.